Garfield Statue

President James A. Garfield (March 4, 1881 – September 19, 1881)
Location
: 1st and Maryland Street, S.W., on the western side of the Capitol
Architect and Sculptor: John Quincy Adams Ward, Ohio
Ceremony: May 12, 1887
Cost: $65,000 – Congressional appropriations of $30,000, and $35,000 from the Army of the Cumberland.

The Garfield Statue was funded, approved and dedicated in 6 years – one of the quickest turnarounds for a statue in DC. The reason was mainly due to the determination of the Society of the Army of the Cumberland.

In 1883 funds were raised through the Army of the Cumberland for the statue and Congressional appropriations of $30,000 were approved in 1884.

President James Garfield only served six months in the presidency. He was assassinated by Charles Gautieu, in 1881. Prior to the presidency he had served in the Civil War.  Garfield commanded the 42nd Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and later served as Chief of Staff for the commander of the Army of the Cumberland.

The original location for the statue was to be in Iowa circle at the intersection of Vermont and Rhode Island Avenues, and P and 13th Streets – now known as Logan Circle. The sculptor J.Q.A. Ward was well-known and well-regarded and had completed the bronze memorial of General Thomas at 14th Street and Massachusetts Avenue. In 1884 a Congressional commission selected the site at the foot of the Capitol grounds at the intersection of 1st Street and Maryland Avenue, SW.

The original concept for Garfield’s statue was that “He will hold the Bible in his hand and have his face turned slightly upward as he take the obligation”.

The unveiling took place on May 12, 1887, coinciding with the meeting of the Society of the Army of Cumberland. On that day a procession was gathered and proceeded from the Arlington Hotel at 12noon, and led by Gen. Baird to the statue.

The unveiling ceremony began at 1pm with an opening prayer, the Marine Band played “The Star Spangled Banner”, and then the flag was pulled off the statue as the “crowd cheered, [and] the Marine Band struck up “Hail to the Chief”. This was followed by a national salute of thirty-eight guns fired from a battery which had been placed on Capitol Hill for the purpose.

The ten foot six inch statue shows Garfield delivering an address with his right hand resting on a column and a manuscript held in his left. The three figures at the base of the pedestal are representative of the three phases of Garfield’s life – that of student, soldier, and statesman. Adornments include a laurel wreath enclosing the scales of justice for the statesman, a sword and a trumpet for the soldier, and globe for the student. The pedestal also has bands of oak leaves and buckeyes. The inscriptions read:

James A. Garfield, 1831-1881

Major General U.S.V., Member of Congress, Senator and President of the United States of America

Erected by his comrades of the Society of the Army of the Cumberland, May 12, 1887

The salutation was given by General J.W. Keifer and lasted almost an hour. General Sheridan then transferred the statue to President Cleveland, saying, ‘This statue which has been unveiled in your presence to-day was erected by the comrades of General Garfield belonging to the Army of the Cumberland. They recognized his merit as a soldier and they wished to pay some testimony to that merit and to his worth as a man.’

President Cleveland accepted the statue and gave a speech after which the band played “Hail, Columbia”, and Rev. F.D. Power have the benediction.

In subsequent years the area of the statue saw many near collisions as it was a highly trafficked area and a streetcar used to run up 1st Street. In 1959 Congressman Whitener of North Carolina brought a bill to Congress to move the statue after a near collision with a streetcar close-by the statue. The bill did not pass.

References

The Washington Post, May 11, 1883

Army of the Cumberland, Apr 8, 1887

The Garfield Statue, May 1, 1887

Gen. Garfield in Bronze, May 13, 1887

Brush with Streetcar, Mar 3, 1959

Forget Garfield Shooting, Jul 3, 1911

Francis Asbury Statue

Statue: Francis Asbury (August 20, 1745 – March 31, 1816)
Location: 16th Street and Columbia Roads, N.W.
Sculptor: Henry Augustus Lukeman, New York
Cost: Gift to the United States by the Methodist Episcopal church at a cost of about $60,000 (1924)
Dedication: Wednesday, October 5, 1924, 2:30pm

Site approval was made on August 9, 1924. The statue was erected without expense to the United States.

The sculpture was finished in July 1921 and portrays Asbury seated on a horse with saddlebags containing books and articles of clothing.

Francis Asbury (1745-1816) came from England to America in 1771, by appointment of John Wesley, to do missionary work. Asbury became the first bishop of the Methodist Episcopal church and was also the developer of American Methodism – the most numerous Protestant church family in America. Asbury lead the American Methodist church for 45 years during which time he travelled extensively.

He traveled over 5,000 miles a year on horseback, was paid $64 per year (about 20 cents a day), and covered an estimated 250,000 miles in his lifetime. He preached daily and three times on Sunday giving at least 500 sermons a year.  Asbury wrote, by his own estimates, 1,000 letters a year, and also wrote in journals, which were published on 1,200 pages.

When he began preaching in America in 1765 “there were an estimated 600 Methodists in the county and only a half dozen preachers. He lived to see an increase to 200,000 members and 700 preachers.” (“He Rode Horseback 250,000 Miles”, The Washington Post, Mar 30, 1930, SM7)

 

James Buchanan

President James Buchanan: served as President from 1857-1861
Sculpture: Hans Schuler
Architect: William Gordon Beecher
Dedication: June 26, 1930, 2:30pm
Ceremony: President Hoover addressed the crowd
Cost: $100,000 given by Mrs. Harriet Lane Johnston, Buchanan’s niece and mistress of the White House during his administration.

Buchanan was born in Franklin County, Pa., on April 23, 1791, and died March 1867 at Wheatland in Pennsylvania. His public service career included being both a U.S. Representative and a Senator, serving as Minister to Russia, Secretary of State under Polk, and Minister to Great Britain under Pierce. His tenure as President is marked by strife in the Kansas Territory, the Dred Scott Supreme Court case, and the lead up to the Civil War.

During Buchanan’s service as President, his niece, Harriet Lane served as White House hostess. President Buchanan, who never married, was her uncle and guardian after she was orphaned at the age of eleven. When Harriet Lane Johnston died in 1903 her will included a bequest for a statue honoring her uncle.

The controversy over erecting a memorial statue for James Buchanan in Meridian Hill Park began immediately. For 15 years Congress debated  or ignored voting about the statue. The bequest had to be accepted by the United States by July 2, 1918 or the monies would revert to other purposes. And it took until 1918 for Congress to resolve to allow a statue in Buchanan’s honor, and then another 10 years to finish the memorial in Meridian Hill Park.

At issue was the question of Buchanan’s loyalty to the Union during his presidency, which immediately preceded Lincoln’s.

Leading the dissent was Senator Henry Cabot Lodge (R.,-Mass.) who stated, “This joint resolution proposes at this moment, in the midst of this war, to erect a statue to the only President upon whom rests the shadow of disloyalty in the great office to which he was elected.” Lodge also argued that was no excuse for erecting a statue to a man like Buchanan in the Capital City that at the time had no memorial to such Presidents as the John Adams, who signed the Declaration of Independence; Thomas Jefferson, founder of the Democratic Party, and Madison, Monroe and John Quincy Adams.

In the meantime the fine arts commission had approved the final model of the Buchanan memorial in 1916. So, on June 17, 1918 the Buchanan statue site was passed in the Senate by a vote of 51 to 11. The House of Representatives had passed a resolution for the statue on February 20, 1918 by a vote of 217 to 142.

Controversy continued for another 10 years with many citizens arguing against a memorial of any kind.

The Buchanan Statue was unveiled on June 26, 1930. According to reports, President Hoover and a group of diplomats and government officials attended the unveiling and dedication for the memorial to James Buchanan on June 26, 1930.  And the formal presentation of the statue was made by Roland S. Morris, former ambassador to Japan. The ceremony was not open to the public.

Upon unveiling the statue a dozen carrier pigeons were released from a lower pavilion, and the ceremony ended with the playing of “Taps”.

In his presentation of the statue to the nation, Roland S. Morris declared that over time, “[Buchanan’s] qualities as a statesman became apparent, and we now recognize him as one of our truly great men.”

Buchanan was called the first of the log-cabin presidents that included Lincoln, Johnson, and Grant. Of these four, three have statues in the nation’s capital.

Photos by: Fiona Clem

Citations:

The Washington Post, Jun 18, 1918 (p7)

The Washington Post, Jun 26, 1930 (p20)

The Washington Post, Buchanan Statue Site Authorized, June 18, 1918

The Buchanan Statue, Jan 16, 1928, pg6

The White House: http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/jamesbuchanan

Dante Alighieri

Dante Alighieri, Italian poet (1265 – 1321)
Location: Meridian Hill Park, southeast side of lower park, near 15th Street and Florida Avenue, NW. The location was originally called Poet’s Corner.
Sculptor: Ettore Ximenes, Italy
Designer: Whitney Warren
Ceremony: Commissioner Rudolph, M. Rene Viviani, Amb. Ricci
Dedication: Thursday, December 1, 1921, 3:30pm

The statue of Dante was given to the city by Chevalier Carlo Barsotti, president of the Dante commission of New York. Created by Italian Commentator Ettore Ximenes, it is a replica of the Dante statue in New York City. The statue is twelve feet high, and the pedestal is 9 feet high.  At the unveiling a temporary pedestal was used. The statue shows Dante wrapped in a long cape, with a book under his arm. 

The dedication schedule was changed to accommodate some of the European delegation who were in Washington, D.C. for a post-World-War-I conference on the limitation of armaments.

Addressing the crowd was M. Rene Viviani, former French premier. Also on hand were Italian Ambassador Roland Ricci, and Ambassador Jusserand. President Warren G. Harding was in attendance along with delegates from the recently concluded arms conference.

Barsotti explained that reverence for Dante, hope for success “of the noble work started by America in the interests of world-peace”, and “love, devotion, and loyalty to this great nation” were the main reasons for this gift to America.

Commissioner Rudolph of the Fine Arts Commission accepted the state on behalf of the city and said, “The selection of the location for the statue is a particularly happy choice in that it is in what is destined to become one of the most beautiful sections of the Nation’s Capital.” He continued: “This spot will prove a popular resort to hosts of students, writers, painters and sculptors who visit the Capital from all parts of the world.”

Op-Eds questioning the positioning of the Dante statue — hidden away in Meridian Hill Park, were plentiful after the dedication. But as one writer pointed out, Dante was a man of the people, using the quote: ‘Give the people light and they will find their own path’ to illustrate his point, and therefore perfectly situated.  Speculation and opinions continued until November 1923 when final arrangements were made for a Rockport granite base, a replacement for the temporary base that had been used during the dedication. The base was presented and paid for by Carlo Barsotti, who had paid for the statue.

The year the statue was dedicated, 1921, was the 600th anniversary of the death of Dante Alighieri.

citation:

The Washington Post, (Oct 22, 1910)

The Washington Post, Place Dante Statue in Meridian Park Soon (Nov. 18, 1921)